2.9 Human Nature Matters

1 NOTE: Yawns are contagious. There’s been a considerable amount of research on contagious yawning, that finds intriguing differences among ages and individuals.

If you’d like to see how you fall on the vulnerability to contagion scale, try the video on this Psychology Today post:

Bergland, Christopher. “Why is Yawning so Contagious?” Psychology Today, March 16, 2014. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201403/why-is-yawning-so-contagious

Or, Miller, Sara G. “Here’s Why Yawns Are So contagious.” LiveScience, August 31, 2017. https://www.livescience.com/60288-why-are-yawns-so-contagious.html

2 Krulwich, Robert. “Do Our Friends Make Us Fatter?,” April 28, 2011. National Public Radio. https://www.npr.org/sections/krulwich/2011/04/28/135772461/do-our-friends-make-us-fatter Referencing: Cristakis, Nicholas A. and James H. Fowler, James H. “The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years.” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, 2007, pp.370–379. DOI:10.1056/NEJMsa066082

3 Rolls, Barbara J., Erin L. Morris Roe and Liane S. Roe. “Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 76, No. 6, 1 December 2002, pages 1207–2018 https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/76/6/1207/4689551

4 Milgram, Stanley. “Behavioral Study of Obedience.” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 67, no. 4, October 1963, pp. 371–378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040525

NOTE: Since publication in 1963, a great deal of discussion literature has been published. The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues devotes an issue of the Journal of Social Issues to Milgram’s work: Milgram at 50: Exploring the Enduring Relevance of Psychology’s most Famous Studies, vol. 70, no. 3, September 2014, pp. 393–602.

5 Allen, Marshall and Olga Pierce. “Medical Errors Are No. 3 Cause of U.S. Deaths, Researchers Say.” Morning Edition, National Public Radio, May 3, 2016. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/05/03/476636183/death-certificates-undercount-toll-of-medical-errors

6 Segilia, Deana. “Asch’s Conformity experiment.” Penn State. March 17, 2016. http://sites.psu.edu/dps16/2016/03/17/aschs-conformity-experiment/

NOTE: This is a simple explanation of the experiment, which was first done by Swarthmore professor Solomon Asch in 1951: McLeod, Saul. “Asch Experiment.” SimplyPsychology, 2008. http://www.simplypsychology.org/asch-conformity.html

7 Simons, Daniel J and Christopher F. Chabris. “Gorillas in our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events,” Perception, vol. 28. no. 9, 1999, pp. 1059–1074. Also available online as a pdf: http://www.chabris.com/Simons1999.pdf.

NOTE: You can try some of their experiments by going to theinvisiblegorilla.com or to Simons’ YouTube Channel, http://www.youtube.com/user/profsimons

8 Tavris, Carol and Elliot Aronson. Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2007.

9 Moore, Michael, Director and Screenplay Author. Roger & Me. Documentary film. 1989

 PrevMoney Fundamentals 3.13